Advantages Inductive charging carries a far lower risk of electrical shock, when compared with conductive charging, because there are no exposed conductors. The ability to fully enclose the charging connection also makes the approach attractive where water impermeability is required; for instance, inductive charging is used for implanted medical devices that require periodic or even constant external power, and for electric hygiene devices, such as toothbrushes and shavers, that are frequently used near or even in water. Inductive charging makes charging mobile devices more convenient; rather than having to connect a power cable, the device can be placed on a charge plate. Disadvantages One disadvantage of inductive charging is its lower efficiency and increased ohmic (resistive) heating in comparison to direct contact. Implementations using lower frequencies or older drive technologies charge more slowly and generate heat for most portable electronics,; the technology is nonetheless commonly used in some electric toothbrushes and wet/dry electric shavers, partly for the advantage that the battery contacts can be completely sealed to prevent exposure to water. Inductive charging also requires drive electronics and coils that increase manufacturing complexity and cost. Newer approaches diminish the transfer losses with ultra thin coils, higher frequencies and optimized drive electronics, thus providing chargers and receivers that are compact, efficient and can be integrated into mobile devices or batteries with minimal change. These technologies provide charging time that are the same as wired approaches and are finding their way into mobile devices rapidly. The Magne Charge system used in the GM EV-1, Chevy S-10 EV and Toyota RAV4 EV vehicles employed high-frequency induction to deliver high power at an efficiency of 86% (6.6kW power delivery from a 7.68kW power draw). Examples Transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) systems in artificial hearts and other surgically implanted devices. General Motors’ (GM) discontinued EV-1 electric car was charged with an inductive charging paddle, which was inserted into a receptacle on the vehicle. GM and Toyota agreed on a standard inductive charging interface developed by Hughes Electronics for GM called Magne Charge. GM later dropped its support in 2002 when the California Air Resources Board selected the SAE J1772, or “Avcon”, conductive charging interface for electric vehicles in California. In 2006, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported that they had discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. The team, led by Marin Soljai, theorized that they could extend the distance between the coils by adding resonance to the equation. The MIT wireless power project, called WiTricity, uses a curved coil and capacitive plates. April 28, 2009: An Energizer inductive charging station for the Wii remote is reported on IGN. At CES in January 2009, Palm, Inc. announced their new Pre smartphone would be available with an inductive charger, though the charger itself will be sold as a separate accessory. The charger is known as the “Touchstone”, and a special backplate must be fitted to the Pre in order to be compatible with it. In August 2009 A Consortium of interested companies called the Wireless Power Consortium announced they were nearing completion for a new industry standard for low-power Inductive charging See also Charging station In-road electric vehicle charger Resonant energy transfer Environmental technology References ^ a b “How can an electric toothbrush recharge its batteries when there are no metal contacts between the toothbrush and the base?” (Commercial website). HowStuffWorks, Inc., via howstuffworks.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-23. ^ a b US patent 6972543 “Series resonant inductive charging circuit” ^ a b c David Pogue (2009-06-03). “Another Pre Innovation: The Touchstone Charging Stand”. NYTimes.com. http://pogue.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/06/03/another-pre-innovation-the-touchstone-charging-stand/?ref=personaltech. Retrieved 2009-10-15. ^ “Non-contact Charging System Simultaneously Charges Multiple Mobile Devices” ^ WM7200 Inductive Charger Owner Manual. GM Advanced Technology Vehicles, Torrance, California 90509-2923, 1-800-482-6644. 1998. p. 15. http://www.evchargernews.com/miscfiles/gm atv wm7200 owners manual.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-15. ^ “GM Pulls the Plug on Inductive Charging: Letter from General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles”. EV1 Club. 2002-03-15. http://ev1-club.power.net/archive/020315/index.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-23. ^ Hadley, Franklin (2007-06-07). “Goodbye wires”. MIT News. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/wireless-0607.html. Retrieved 2007-08-23. MIT team experimentally demonstrates wireless power transfer, potentially useful for powering laptops, cell phones without cords. ^ Castelvecchi, Davide (2006-11-15). “Wireless energy may power electronics: Dead cell phone inspired research innovation” (pdf). TechTalk (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 51 (9). http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2006/techtalk51-9.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-23. ^ “Energizer Induction Charger for Wii Preview”. IGN.com. 2009-04-28. http://gear.ign.com/articles/977/977418p1.html. ^ Miller, Paul (2009-01-08). “Palm Pre’s wireless charger, the Touchstone”. Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2009/01/08/palm-pres-wireless-charger. ^ “wireless electricity specification nearing completion”. PCWorld. 2009-08-18. http://www.pcworld.com/article/170360/wireless_electricity_specification_nearing_completion.html?loomia_ow=t0:s0:a41:g2:r18:c0.016236:b27254916:z0. Retrieved 2009-08-21. External links How Inductors Work How Electric Toothbrushes Recharge Using Inductors Inductive Charging Wireless Electricity Is Here Categories: Electronics terms | Inductive chargingHidden categories: NPOV disputes from October 2009 | All NPOV disputes | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007
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